Great Information Regarding the Model Airplane

The model aircraft are the flying or the non-flying models of those existing or just an imaginary aircraft. They are usually scale versions of the full-sized airplanes which are made of different materials like foam, polystyrene, balsa wood and fiber glass.

The designs are varying from the simple glider airplane to the accurate scale model that could be very big. Models can be constructed by flying or non-flying models and the techniques for building the two were very different from the other.

Static Model Airplane – this is a scale model of an airplane and being belt by using the plastic, metals, woods or papers. Some of the static models were scaled intended for the wind tunnels, wherein the data that has been acquired can be used for helping the design of the full scaling aircraft.

Promotional Purposes – most of the airline companies permit their airplane to be utilized as models for publicity. In previous days, airlines companies will order big models of their aircraft and provide them into travel agencies in order to make them as promotional items.

Flying Model Aircraft

There are three groups of flying model airplane:

a) Free flight model – aircraft which fly with no attachment into the ground. This model pre-dates the hard works of the Wright Brothers and also other founders.
b) Control line model – this aircraft makes use of cables (normally two) leading from the wings to the pilot. A deviation of the system is the Round-the-pole flying model
c) Radio-controlled aircraft – this airplane has a transmitter maneuvered by the pilot in the land, transferring signals into the receiver in the plane.
Several flying forms look like scaled down form of piloted aircraft, while others were built having no intentions of appearing similar to piloted aircraft. Moreover, there are some models of birds as well as flying dinosaurs.

Glider Aircraft- is an aircraft that resembles an airplane without an engine. Bigger outside model gliders are normally radio controlled and hand-winched opposing the wind by a cord connected to the hook underneath the fuselage means of a ring, in order that cord will drop when the glider is overhead. Other methods entail catapult-launching.

Since gliders are authorized, flight should be continued by means of the use of ordinary wind in the atmosphere. A slope or mountain will frequently manufacture updrafts of atmosphere which would continue the voyage of the glider.

Source by Victoria Sallador

Scale Model Aircraft Building an Overview and Details of the Hobby

Scale Model Aircraft Building an Overview and Details of the Hobby

When the Wright brothers realized their initial successful flight in the early 1900's, the entire world was altered. At last, it was proven that man could soar like the birds! That primary plane was not perfect and the flight was not very long, but this was incredible! Ever since, millions of people have flow millions of miles around the globe.

Scale Model plane Making a common hobby not long after the first real planes were built. Enthusiasts from all social classes, yound and old and income levels participated. Early scale model makers were fascinated with the Wright Bro's and had to be a part of it all.

In the beginning, there were no model plane model kits on the market and the complete model had to be made by hand. Although quite simple in design, these early models really had the ability to fly! As time when, flying machine kits were developed for home hobbiest to assemble. The early kits were sparse and only included basic parts, but no power source. Most used twisted rubber strips and could only fly short amounts of time.

Steam power was another means used propel scale model flying machines. By using model scale, flash steam power plants, flights could have sustained for longer times and distances. This was a major advancement over way of powering models, but not nearly efficient enough to please the model builders of the time. Over time, electric engines were developed that were just the right size to be used in a scale model airplane. This amazing innovation rearranged everything for the model plane world.

There are certainly two different types of scale model aeroplane that are available. One is the non-flying or display kind. These are for admiring only and are usually secured to a holding stand, or they may be suspended the ceiling. These model plane are most often created in a scale of 1:48, although a variety of scales are available.

Static models can be made quite easily and come in a number of ready to assemble, predecorated, simple designs. They are usually constructed of balsa wood, plastic, lightweight metals or even paper. The majority of these are imitations of actual airplane both military and civil.

Some advanced model kits require the model maker to have more more complex. These model kits require the complete construction of the aircraft this includes painting the craft. Display aircraft models are not provided with engines and really can not be fitted with one. They simply are not meant to fly and are not made to be able to.

Flying scale model airplanes are substantially different from non-flight models. Quite often they have little resemblance to any real aeroplane, these models are simply created for flight, not to imitate any particular craft. Flying plane models are available in three classifications, free-flight, control line and RC. Of the three, remote control model plane are maybe the most used now.

Model aeroplane with the ability to take flight quite often bury their form from vintage flying machines. They are usually constructed with a frame of lightweight balsa covered this is done with cloth, decorative paper or plastic film. At the same time other styles are made using sheets of lightweight balsa wood to create a stronger body. The models wings are sometimes a combination of wood and styrofoam, making it easier to construct larger airplane models.

Power Sources for model aeroplane come in a amazing myriad of sizes and styles these days. There are electric and gasoline motors and even miniature jet power engines available. The kind and style of motor is dependent on the size and weight of the model plane it will propel. The most common way to keep control of the motor on a model aircraft is with RC technology. The modeler can control the speed, how high the airplane flies and maneuver the model with a simple flick of his finger.

A less used type of power for model airplane is the control line. The plane model is tethered to a wire that is controlled by the pilot. For most planes of this type, the flying distance is restricted only as long as the wire allows. However, the flight time is usually much longer than other styles of flight. The downside is that the model will only fly around in circles.

Some scale model makers today prefer to construct vintage, free-flight model planes. They require the model plane builder to know a bit more about the workings of flight than newer model kits, adding to the challenge. Much like the Wright brothers, these model builders have a need to put their aeronautical skills to the test. Each part is carefully crafted to exacting specifications or the aeroplane will be no more than a display model.

Source by Vin Hayes

Creating Realistic Scenery For "O" Model Trains

In order to create the most realistic scenery for O model trains, you will need to get familiar with the different methods of cutting and shaping extruded foam. There is an art form to using handsaws, wire brushes, and box cutters in order to create the most realistic scenery. Cutting your Styrofoam will help to lay the groundwork for the scenery, but you need to be familiar with the different methods used in order to paint and cover the scenery in order to make it look like it is alive.

Most people will use paint like burnt umber in order to paint what will look like dirt. This will serve as the base for the landscape in most terrains. If you are looking to have a snowy mountain scene, you may want to use a dark gray paint instead. The paint will have to dry before you can move ahead with any part of the project. Make sure the paint completely covers the Styrofoam. Use two or even three coats of paint if necessary to completely cover the base foam. Many people will use cheap house paint if they are looking to cover large layouts. You will quickly see the quality of the paint does not matter as much as the ability to cover the layout evenly.

Once the paint has had a chance to dry, there are several different ways you can add vegetation to the layout. Because of the size of O model trains, many opt to buy moss sheets from a nursery. These sheets can be either glued into place, or simply laid on. They are preferred because they are real vegetation, which will last a long time without decaying. If you spray the moss with a fine mist of water, it will actually grow a little bit while on your layout.

Lichen is a great way to add shrubs to your scenery. The more popular way to add these to the landscape is to use some diluted schoolhouse glue. Simply mix the glue with water and then dip one end of the lichen. Use the glue in order to stick the lichen into the exact spot you would like for it to be in. The glue will dry clear, so you will not have to worry about it being seen. Another way you can add lichen to a layout is through the use of fine wire. The wire is wrapped around the middle of the lichen and then stuck into the Styrofoam.

Another great way to add realism to your O model trains scenery is to add small tress to it. This is accomplished through the trees you buy from the hobby shop. While there, you should also buy the blue polyurethane that will be poured into the riverbed you have created with the help of your wire brush. Adding some boats to the side of the river is a great way to add more realism to the environment you have created. Have fun in your mini world creating realistic scenery for your O model trains and let your imagination run wild.

Source by David Blackburn

Planking the Deck of a Model Ship

Planking the Deck of a Model Ship

The first stage to planking the deck is to fit the false deck to the frame. The false deck is usually made from 1mm plywood and will need to be slightly adjusted for the various bulkhead notches if supplied with your kit. Mark the center line on the deck from bow to stern ensures that it is lined up squarely with the false keel and that the bulkheads fit through the notches on the false deck. This fit should be either snug nor loose. The false deck will allow the deck planking to fit easier and lie flatter and more evenly.

The false deck is cambered from the midline to both the starboard and port sides. The amount of camber is usually shown on the waterline drawing that comes with the kit the dimensions of which should be marked by the builder on the bulkheads as a guide. If the plans do not indicate the camber, the general rule is "" rise to every foot. So in our 1:48 example from the last article where the breadth (beam) is 56 feet, the rise would be 13/32 "or 10mm from the center line to the edge of either the port side or starboard side. Make sure that the sheer plan (length) matches the body plan (depth) and remember that deck curvatures do not always follow the same curvature of the hull sheer exactly. This is because the stern of the ship sits lower in the water than the bow. The level mid point between the stern and the bow is about of of the length of the ship between the stern and the bow. If the plans do not match make adjustments or else fittings like cannons will not sit properly on the deck (cannons should be pointing slightly down). You should also measure the distance from the waterline to the top of the false deck to ensure accuracy with the hull. If need be you can soak the false deck in warm water or warm water with ammonia in order to get the rough curvature that you need. Remember when soaking wood, you should only use warm water and leave the piece in the water for no more than 15 minutes. This way the cells of the wood will be pliable but not broken down.

Once you are happy with the camber of the false deck, make sure that it fits snuggly up to the false keel adjacent to the sternpost or rudder post. Using wood glue and pins adheres the false deck to the bulkheads. Once the false deck is firmly in place, mark and cut out the openings previously marked for the masts, hatches, gratings and companion ways. It is better to do this after the false deck is in place because of the camber of the deck.

Now you are ready to apply planking to the false deck. The decks were usually light colored. The width of the plank for our 18th Century model is between 8 inches and 14 inches scaled to on average 5.82mm Never all deck planks on a ship are of equal width so any width between 4.23mm and 7.41mm would be acceptable. The thickness of the planking varied from deck to deck. The lower decks were up to 4 "thick (2.12mm) and the upper decks 3" thick (1.59mm.) Remember that the length of the board should not exceed 5.5 "(140mm).

The deck strakes (planks) were joggled, especially at the rounded edges close to the bow. The end of the plank equals 1/3 of the plank width and the length of the snipe is equal to not less than twice the width of the plank. As far as plank shift is concerned, there are three, four and for French ship, five, plank lifts. As an example, this means that there would be four planks shifted evenly between the first and fifth planks in a four plank shift arrangement. It's helpful to create a cutting jig to ensure that all of the planks are cut evenly and at the correct length. You can also use this jig for the nail pattern.

On a full size ship a gap of 3/8 "wide (.2mm scaled) was left between the deck planks both lengthwise and at the butt ends to suit the caulking iron. of animal hair, sphagnum moss or hemp and tar) and the seam was paid with pitch. the false deck.

o Black thread can be glued between the boards.

o Another method is to darken the edges with a marking pen, which you would have to test to be sure the pen does not bleed into the wood and give you a fuzzy line.

o Another method is to use a soft black lead pencil and darken the edges. With the use of a pencil the caulk lines will not be perfectly even and will tend to fade in and out. This does give a realistic appearance.

o By standing the planks on edge and gluing them to a sheet of black paper then cutting them apart will give you a perfectly even caulk seam.

o To produce a subtle appearance simply space the planks ever so slightly apart and allow the glue to ooze up between the planks. You can leave the gap and allow it to fill in with whatever finish (stain, urethane or paint) you intend on using or wiping the seams with a mixture of colored glue, or fill the seams with a graphite paste mixture (used for leak proofing gasket joints). It is a little difficult to maintain an even gap between the planking because as the planks are glued to the hull they require clamping which may cause the planks to shift.

o You can also use black grout as long as your planking material is hardwood.

The nailing or tree nailing pattern depends on the width of the plank The traditional method for adding treenails is to use bamboo strips or hardwood dowels pulled through a draw plate to form the nail. Alternatives would be to use the bristles from paint brushes, whisk brooms, push brooms, wall paper brushes or anything with bristles. Materials composed of copper, brass or silver wire or plastic rods available in many sizes and can be applied by hand or spring loaded nailing tools. Once you form the tree nails, drill holes in the deck planks in the pattern you choose then glue the nails in place. Once complete, give the deck surface a light sanding.

Once you are happy with the deck, it should be sealed either with paint, stain or urethane. If you use urethane, remember to dilute the first two coats by 30% with a thinner (70/30 mix) and apply the third coat full strength.

Source by Wray Hodgson

A Brief History on Model Trains

A Brief History on Model Trains

Ever wondered where exactly did the hobby of making model trains started from? Or how long has the model train been around? Who started it and who's been doing it ever since?

Like much of anything built by modern man, these trains appeared as soon as their real counterparts came along. It was sometimes in the 19th century that the modern railway system was invented and around this time, people have been making the model equivalents of each train as well. Initially, the models were meant to promote the trains themselves as most people did not have the chance to see an actual train then. Before a railway could be completed, models of the railway and their trains would be on display to invite prospect passengers and curious creatures into thinking about riding a train.

As time progressed, people started wanting the model trains for themselves and viola, the model train industry was born. The trains in the 19th century were never as endearing as what we have today. Most trains were made with tin and wood and were not even working models although one stand-out manufacturer in the name of Marklin started developing and selling working locomotive models as soon as the train toy demand sky-rocketed. Up to this day, Marklin remains to be one of the top manufacturers of model trains having kept their tradition of excellent quality and a hefty price tag.

These trains were not big in America alone. Hobbyists included children and adults from both America and European nations such as the UK and Germany. It can even be noted that before the first world war, most prototype train manufacturers were from Germany. However, during the height of the war, shipments to America were stopped and this condition in model train shipments wave birth to American manufacturers such as Lionel and Ives.

The hobby grew large and demand was through the roof but the common problem with working prototype trains was that they were too expensive. The solution was later discovered by some American brands. They simply made less- complicated designs which had such an appeal to the middle class that the model train hobby became one of the largest hobbies during those times.

Upon entering the 20th century, these trains became more detail oriented and layout designs became more complex. Up until today, modelers are still in their search for making their dream layouts complete with realistic backgrounds and model houses.

Source by Esteban Cuenca

Be A Positive Role Model

Be A Positive Role Model

Has it ever occurred to you that you may be the only positive influence on someone else's life? Have you ever stopped to think that you may be the only example of excellence and integrity to a classmate, neighbor or friend? As strange as it may seem, people are always watching you, even if you are not aware of it. And the more you do what's right, the more your peers will look to you as a positive role model. They may never tell you. They may never admit it to themselves. They may even make fun of you for being the type of person who tries to do what is right, but that does not mean that they do not respect you or look up to you.

When you have a vision of something greater for your life and work towards that vision you will become a positive role model for others wherever you want to or not. When you value, believe in and respect yourself, people will notice that there's something different about you. And chances are you will not fit in with everyone else. That's a good thing, because it means that you are unique and you were given the special task of being a beacon of light for others.

Being a role model is not always easy. There will be times when you will find yourself at odds with your friends. You'll even worry about fitting in. But do not worry. You're not expected to fit in, because being a role model means that you stand out for others to see.

As a teen you'll often hear about the importance of having role models and there's no questions that this is important. But what's also important is, being a positive role model. Who says that you can not be the positive role model?

There is something special about knowing that you are trying to set a good example and that you care enough to be the very best. Whether or not you are popular has nothing to do with being a role model. A role model is someone who chooses to put forth their best effort everyday and when they make a mistake they pick themselves up and try again. If this sounds like you, then I say that you are a positive role model. Keep up the good work.

This article is exclaimed from Cassandra Mack's book, "Young, Gifted and Does It: 52 Power Moves for Teens."

Source by Cassandra Mack

All You Need To Know About Static Model Aircrafts

Static model airplanes, as the name suggest are non-flying models. They are not meant for flying but are mostly built for those who hobby is to collect and keep these pieces. Static model airplanes are also used as show pieces or placed on strategic places in a room or office to add beauty to the place.

Static model aircraft are made of various materials. These materials include wood, canvas, die cast metal and plastic. Some models may be made with a combination of some of these materials too. For those models that are made from wood, Mahogany and balsa are the commonly used types of wood. These models are usually hand carved and although they are not so detailed to scale, they represent the real planes in many outer details like windows and shape. Plastic materials are more detailed that the wooden models and gives the buyer a wide range of sizes and forms than which to choose. The most detailed models are the ones which are die-cast. These are metallic and are so detailed that they represent the real airplane in exact scale.

As mentioned earlier, static model planes are mostly meant for display. To ensure easy display, most models come with a base which enables them to be placed on surfaces like tables, cabinets etc. Depending on the size of your plane, you can decide also to hang it from a ceiling to give it a flight facade. But care should be taken not to expose these model planes to direct sunlight, since it may cause discoloration. Some models also need to be assembled before displaying or at least, some parts like propellers and attached ammunition need to be attached in case they came dismembered.

Static model planes come in different sizes. Some are tiny pieces while others are as big as 5 feet or more. Although it's not so common in model planes, some models are scaled to size. In other words, the model size is, say 1:40, means it is 1 / 40th of the real plane. Some models also come decorated and others undecorated. The decorated ones are mostly plastic models and die cast models while the undecorated ones are wood. These models are unique since they reveal the original carving and one can also paint them!

Static model airplanes are mostly maintenance free but still need some care. First, they should be kept away from direct sunlight and should be dusted regularly to avoid discoloration. They should also be handled with care especially while picking them. Do not pick them up from the wings, but always do so from the fuselage or from the display base. The price of these models depends on the size, the material used and the details of the model. The most detailed models come at a high price, but are worth every penny.

Source by Victor Epand

Model Train Plans – What This Really Means

Model Train Plans – What This Really Means

Model train plans can specifically refer to the plans which you will use for your train track design, or they can represent something which is much more involved. They in fact, can, and should refer to the entire design, and anything else you have decided to make a part of your model train layout.

Thorough and well thought out model train plans are without a doubt the key to building a satisfying and impressive model railroading layout. Where to begin is the question that all hobbyist new to this amazing pastime must find the correct answer to.

Being new with a hobby that has as many aspects to it as model trains can seem a little daunting at first, and the best approach is to just take one thing at a time. Research and study should always come first followed by the actual doing. Without the correct information this hobby can involve unnecessary expense, and will also waste a great deal of time.

Fortunately, there are many good resources available for building a model railroad layout. You can source information online, buy well written books at your local bookstore, go to your public library where you'll find an where other enthusiast are always willing to help and share information, contact your local model train club, and you can also visit your local hobby shop to acquire assistance.

Before you do anything you should realistically evaluate the space you have available in which to build the model railroading empire which you have only up to this point been thinking about. Although it is not necessary to initially plan a huge layout, you'll want to make sure that if this is your ultimate goal you actually have the room to accomplish what you have in mind.

On the other hand, you may only have a limited amount of space and no matter what you do, nothing will change this fact. The reason why evaluating the space you have available is the very first step in planning a model railroad layout, is because this decision will have a direct relationship for choosing the type of scale you'll want to build your layout around.

There are a number of scales, and if you have limited space you should take a close look at the smaller of these which would include the Ho, N, TT, and Z scales. If you have plenty of room you have the luxury of choosing one of the larger scales, which for example, would include the G scale.

The next step in developing your model train plans involves making the decision for what you are going to place your model train layout on, and at this stage your obviously well beyond having a model train which is placed on the floor of your home or apartment.

All model railroaders build or purchase a bench work to display their layouts. Deciding to build your own bench work will depend on whether or not you have the necessary carpentry skills to accomplish this task and if you have the time to devote to a project of this type. If in fact you do not have the skills or the time, you'll want to shop for a pre-built benchwork, and this will require a trip to your local model train shop to either make the purchase, or to receive advice regarding where you can purchase a ready made benchwork.

This article could never do justice to the remaining things which must be done to create an impressive model train layout. They include specifying the type of theme which your layout will reflect, track planning, electrical wiring for your layout, the type of transformer you'll use, the creation of scenery, and everything else that has to do with the creation of your model railroading empire.

Investing time in developing model train plans which are thoroughly reviewed and well thought out is the model railroaders key to creating the model train layout of their dreams.

Source by Elliot Davenport

Think Safety When Flying RC Model Aircraft

Think Safety When Flying RC Model Aircraft

When it comes to radio controlled flying one of the most important things in all the hobby is safety, and when I mean safety I do not just mean your own, I mean other peoples as well.

If you look at the hazards you face when it comes to radio controlled flying you have to say starting up your plane is right at the top of the list. The percentage of people who cut their fingers, slice their fingers or even lose a finger through not starting up their plane correctly is quiet high.

But there is not just the start-up of the plane that's a problem, there's a problem of the plane moving forward on its own once it's started.

So what do we have to stop these hazards causing us injury? Well in today's model aircraft scene we have electric starters which are powered by a twelve volt battery, of the more basic method is the chicken stick which is basically a stick about 12 "in length with a rubber sheath at the end to grip the propeller.

Now for a restraint to secure your model when you start it up they're a number of options. You can buy a single ground anchor (or a Y anchor) as its know which you secure into the grass then your aircraft stabilizer sits in the top of the Y securing it when you start-up your model.

One of the best designs that I found was the adjustable long restraint, its one metre in length and has two adjustable loops with trident clips one on each loop and two fixed loops in the other end. It also has a sliding D ring for once you have tightened up your rest at the back of your model aircraft you simply slide the D ring up to the stabilizer and this stops the restraint from coming off the stabiliser.

The loops at the other end are for securing to a ground anchor or attaching to a towing ball of a vehicle.

The good thing about this restraint is that it can be used both at a Tarmac runway and at a grass field. The other advantage of this type of restraint is that if you have a larger scale model around 120 size and above you can adjust the clips on the adjustable end so you can attach it around the fuselage for added security.

Overall be safe at the field when you fly but most important "have fun".

Source by Anthony Fowler

A Brief History of Atlas Model Trains

Atlas model trains started out as Atlas Tool Company, which was founded by Stephen Schaffan Sr. in 1924. The owner of the company did what any other small business owner of the day would do and asked his teenage son to work in the family store. Stephan Schaffan Junior had a different passion in life. He enjoyed making model airplanes and as such, spent a lot of time at the local hobby shop. In order to try to make some extra cash, the young man continuously asked for something to do in the shop. His hope was to be able to work with the materials he enjoyed the most and make money in the process.

What Steve Junior did not know was was being becoming a major annoyance to the shop owner. In an attempt to pacify the child, the hobby shop owner cave has some track to play with. He told Steve Jr. that he should see what he could do to improve the track. As Steve set to making a better track, the shop owner simply enjoyed the peace and quiet he was getting. What happened was the birth of the switch kit. This was a revolutionary invention in the world of model trains because up until that time, everything for model trains was built by hand.

Seeing an opportunity to make some real money, Steve Junior employed the help of Steve Senior and the rest of the family. From the foundation of their home, the entire family worked through the night in order to create the invention, which had become so popular. They were providing one of the most revolutionaryventions in the history of model trains while still going about their daily lives, but out of the secondary income grew the company which would build the Atlas model trains you have come to know today.

Steve Jr. did not rest after creating this invention. Instead, he went on to invent the first rail joiner which could be used by everyone. He also is responsible for creating pre-assembled turn outs and flexible track. The stapling of rail to fiber track was another invention he can take credit for. It was not until much later that the company started producing the Atlas model trains you see sold in most hobby shops today. Once the company did start selling trains to go along with track and layout material, they were well received.

The Atlas model trains have been given the same care and attention the line of products is known for having. The plant that produces the products is in the same New Jersey warehouse it has been in since 1947. Once the company incorporated in 1949, it was well received by the stock market and remains one of the most recognized train companies for those who are serious about model railroading.

No matter what your skill level is, you are sure to enjoy what Atlas model trains have to offer. Not only will you enjoy the selection of trains they have, you will also enjoy the different layout elements and tracks they have to offer. With an eye for detail, the products offered are sure to satisfy even the most demanding consumer.

Source by David Blackburn