Cats need to scratch. That's their way of exercising toes and removing old claw sheaths. Aside from that, it just feels good. You can buy a cat scratching post, make your own, or see your sofa destroyed. Cat furniture does not have to be complex or difficult. It does need to be stable, though. Let's think about a basic cat scratching post. There are only 3 components; a base, a post, and a top. We'll look at each.
The base. A cat scratching post needs to be stable. A post that tips over when in use can scare your cat away, often never to return. The base should be at least 16 "by 16" square and cut from 3/4 "plywood or particle board. you have scraps from your home it will match your décor. Cut pile carpet will not snag your cat's claws like shag or loop. surface Fast, easy, neat.
The post. The scratching post itself is made from two pieces of 2×4 nailed together. Typical post height should be longer than your cat is tall (stretched out). Cats like to stretch when scratching. Most commercial cat scratching posts are 26 "to 30" tall. Nail your 2×4's together and cut both ends square. You will wrap the post with 1/4 ", non-oiled, sisal rope. This kind of rope is sold at most hardware stores or home centers. To determine the amount of rope you need you can figure about five feet for each inch in post height For example a 30 "scratching post would need 5 x 30, or 150 '. Sisal is the best cat scratching medium and is very inexpensive. To wrap the post first drill a quarter inch hole about one inch deep anywhere very near the bottom edge of the post and at the top edge. These are where you will anchor the rope. Attach the post to the top of the carpeted base with four 3 "long deck screws. Screw tightly right through the carpet. the rope around the post. You must wrap it tightly. After every ten or twelve wraps, while maintaining tension, use a hammer to tap the wraps together. and you'll have a gap at the top. When you get to the top use your hot melt again to anchor the end of the rope in the hole you drilled before.
The top. The simplest top for this cat furniture is just a wooden cap that keeps the rope from slipping off. You can buy decorative fence post caps at home stores or just cut a piece of wood about 4 "x 4.5". Simply nail or screw the cap in place. If you really like your cat you could give it a cat perch by making a wooden box with inside dimensions of 14 "x 14" x 3 ". place. If you spray the post with catnip extract your cat will go crazy over his new post.
Depending on just what you have to buy this project can probably be done for $ 30 or so. You can check http://www.katsrule.com for inspiration and ideas.
Bill of materials. Scrap carpet, at least 16 "x 16". Cut pile is best. Plywood, 16 "x 16". Two 2×4's between 26 "and 30" Sisal rope, about 150 '. Wooden top cap, 4 "x 4.5" Deck screws, 3 "
Jewelry makers like any other craftsman needs tools to do their job. If you are new to jewelry making, it is not necessary to start with a large amount of tools. You do need a few to start off with, and then add more as you go. This will also allow you time to research and try a few different types of jewelry before putting a large sum of money in to tools that you really do not need.
A few tools to add to your beginning collection as you start off are, wire cutters, flat or bent- nosed pliers, round nosed pliers, jewelers' files, crimping pliers, beading awl, nylon-nosed pliers, polishing cloth, pencil, ruler , and jewelry glue. You probably could hold off on getting the beading awl. You also might want to add a few dowels of different dimensions to your toolbox also.
Wire cutters are essential to your collection. The best type to purchase, are the flushed-cut wire cutters. This type will allow you to make an even cut. This makes a much nicer finished project.
The flat or bent-nosed pliers are selected solely on your personal preference. Both types of tools do the same function. It does not really matter which piece you choose to use, but the important part is to remember to choose a piece that has a smooth surface to work with. Do not get a type that has ridges or a textured surface. Another name you may hear the flat-nosed pliers referred to as the chain-nosed pliers. They are one in the same.
Round-nosed pliers play an important part in jewelry design. They are used to make hoops, loops, and wraps for attaching beads and making designs in the wire. Solely jewelry makers use this tool. They are sold at most craft stores and jewelry suppliers.
Jeweler's files are use to smooth your wire ends. This will make your finished product look nicer. They typically are sold in sets of 10 to 12.
Crimping pliers are used to hold your wire to the clasps of your jewelry piece. It is very important to use this tool properly. If you use it incorrectly, you more than likely will not tighten the crimp and this will allow slippage of the wire. The ends will come loose and the beads will slide off. Another concern when using this tool is over working the crimp. If you squeeze and pinch it too much, the crimp will become brittle and fall apart. This also will allow the wire to slip.
The proper way to use this tool is to flatten the crimp in ridge that is close to the handle part of the tool. Once you have done this, make a t turn and squeeze the crimp in the ridge closer to the front of the mouth. This should fold the crimp in half making a nice finish. Some jewelers choose to use flat-nosed pliers and just flatten the crimp. Using the crimping tool will make a more professional crimp and will be a nicer finish.
Another jewelry technique uses knots to the beads in to place. The tool used in this process is a beading awl. It has a long pointed piece of metal and a wooden handle. This tool allows you to make secure knots against each bead. Nylon-nosed pliers are used to flatten wire without making marks on the metal. Flat-nosed pliers can be used instead, but cover the metal with a cloth to avoid damage to the wire. This tool is one that can be added later as you build your business.
If you are going to be working with wire to make jewelry, a polishing cloth is a must. It may not be noticeable, however the wire is dirty and often tarnished. The wire needs to be cleaned prior to beginning your design work.
To aid in your design process, it is important to either have a dowel or a pencil to use for coiling and circular designs. These can be purchased in different dimension if you are making your own jump rings. This will allow you to make different sizes.
A measuring tool is necessary too. It is your preference if you use a ruler, yard stick, or a tape measure. My preference is a tape measure. It is easier to keep in smaller spaces.
Jeweler's glue is another product that can be added later. It really depends on the type of jewelry you are making. Many styles do not require glue. Some jewelry makers will add a touch of glue to their beading wire when they string bracelets or necklaces. This helps to make a stronger hold and eliminates breakage. The glue is also used on nylon knots if you are using this type of material.
Starting out is so much fun. There are many varieties of jewelry to make. Be open-minded and try the different types to find your niche. It may take while, but do not be afraid to jump in and learn. It has taken me over two years to determine the material I like to work with the best. The main thing is to relax and have fun!
There may be dozens of reasons why jewelery making is becoming popular. Many people find it enjoyable, because it offers the opportunity to express some artistic creativity, and it is also an inexpensive hobby that can become profitable. As with any other hobby or profession that implies artistic expressions, some tools are necessary. Choosing the right tools will definitely make the job much easier, but also much more enjoyable.
There are quite a few tricks that the professionals use frequently in the task of jewelery making, and like every other profession, these tool s and tricks have been discovered and developed with practice. With the right tools, and some practice with using them, it becomes much easier to create enviable masterpieces.
One thing that professionals should know how to do well in jewelery making, is how to string beads, as it is one of the most basic requirements, and there are a few items that are necessary. The necessary requirements for stringing beads are wires, cords and threads. Although they may sound similar, they are not all they same, and are used for different purposes.
There are different types of threads that are used for connecting or tying the jewelery together. They can be made of materials such as Kevlar, silk, or nylon.
Cords are thicker and stronger than threads, and can be used to form knots to be used with beads, when making bracelets, anklets or slip-on jewelery.
Another of the techniques that most jewelers makers must develop for efficient jewelery making is how to tie knots between the beads. The knots are used to separate precious stones, like pearls on the strand.
It may be possible to complete an entire jewelery making project with your hands, but at some point you will need jewelery pliers. These are not the same pliers that you find in the hardware store, but they are much more elaborate, and usually have rubber handles, for more secure grips. They are available in different shapes and sizes, and you must be sure to choose one that fits your hands. The ones with built-in spring mechanism are easier to work with and take some of the pressures off of your wrists.
Wire cutters, a flat nose, and round nose pliers are three of the must-have tools that are necessary for jewelery making.
The use of wire cutters should be self-explanatory, as they are used for cutting the cords or wires. The round nose pliers are used to make loops. The nose of the pliers is tapered and is much wider at the base of the nose, so that you can wrap the wire around the nose when making long loops for long chains.
There are different kinds of approach when it comes to card making. A hobbyist may opt to make her craft in a most simple manner like the way it was done before. Arts and craft materials, colorful papers, real-looking embellishments and a lot more that they can cut and paste into the card. Messy and untidy as it may seem but it was deemed more challenging in the past. Just imagine how your hands will work overtime just by cutting all papers and embellishments. The tasks never end there because you will still have to glue them all together in an orderly manner to avoid getting an overcrowded card. The process of folding is a little bit tricky too. Most common cards before were made into just one two or three panels. Since you probably used a cardboard type of paper, you would have to use a cutter then run it lightly over the edgy section of the card to make a mark. From that mark, you can start folding the card without completely cracking it.
Now we, loyal card makers should be thankful that printable cards had reached the market through the worldwide web. When we choose to execute this kind of approach during our card making activity, it is recommended that you still have the materials needed when printing is concerned. There are plenty of free templates available on line and you can start choosing for the simplest and uncomplicated ones when you are on the newbie stage. In the long run, you will get used to the process and you may opt for more challenging templates that will surely lead you to a one of a kind card. Most of the time, modification on the chosen design or templates is very minimal and the task will just focus on the manner of printing the actual card. There are some who experience difficulty when it comes to placing the right side of the card to the printer. Albeit the fact that instruction is given before finishing the actual lay out, you will still have to go through numerous trial and error printing. That is the down side of printable card making .
Although the two said approach both seems to be complicated from the start, you will be proud of yourself if you see the result of your card making activity using either of the two. All things if done through hard work and perseverance will certainly come out in a positive result.
Dogs are always shown in movies. Some even have dogs as the main characters of a show. Of course, you want your own pup to become one too! Although it seems difficult to achieve, your dog can become a star in no time through puppy pictures.
Like humans, dogs audit for a role too. They have to be physically fit, sufficient enough for the role and so on. Dogs hand-in their resume once they apply for a role. With these resumes are puppy pictures to impress the agency.
Knowing that a picture can affect everything in your dog's audition, you should try every measure to take the best pictures that can be posted in the pup's application form. These and all more will be taught to you by this article. Find out the various ways to capture the best puppy pictures that can help your pup become a star.
Readying The Pup For The Limelight
Pups, like humans, have to be readied before they begin new activity. Since the dog will be exposed to a new environment, readying your dog beforehand is an essential step in making dreams come true.
Readying the pup for the limelight means setting a specific routine for this activity. Scheduling the dog's routine and slowly incorporating the picture taking activity is very much needed to train the dog and have him readied fro the limelight. You can ask the help of a professional if you'll have a hard time doing so.
Photo Training Your Dog
Photo training the dog when he is already prepared is the next step towards reaching your goals. Playing tricks with the dog and offering reward or punishment in every activity will help train him to become camera oriented. You should frequently practice the shots and create different angles that can yield the perfect pictures. Even when your dog is asleep, you can practice taking pictures of him and looking for the best shots.
Choosing An Agency
After you have trained your dog and after you've learned to take the best pictures, you can start looking for the finest agency that can help turn your pup into a star. This is the most serious step of all since you have to go over much trouble looking for the perfect agency.
Surfing the net is probably one of the ways to apply for your dog. You can also contact local agencies and submit the audition papers privately. Although this may take some time, you'll find everything worth your efforts after you've seen your dog become a star.
If you are interested in making your own natural, homemade, goat milk soap then you should keep up with the best techniques, classes, demonstrations, community events, workshops and more. Where can you find all of this information? Look in magazines, newspapers, newsletters, community papers, local schools and more. You can find an abundance of soap making information to help you achieve your goals!
Find details of important dates, times and locations of events occurring within the southeast USA. You can learn lots of information by attending soaping events and meet new friends too! Discover the difference between goat milk soap and regular commercial soap. You may meet a master soap maker who can help guide you with, detailed, instructions. You can learn how to make soap!
Find community events in the southeast USA or anywhere near your location. Whether it is a Fall Festival, Farm Festival, Goat Festival or Holiday celebration, stay current with dates, times and locations. Many of these events have free admission, so be sure to take advantage of these fun, entertaining and educational opportunities. Community events are enjoyable for the entire family! You can find an abundance of homemade crafts available at these events.
You may find articles, on-line, that are very informative and contain a variety of topics. Making homemade soap understands knowing how to begin, the supplies to use, the proper soap making oils, homemade soap recipes, and more. You may even find a DVD with, step-by-step, soap making instructions, taught by a master soap maker!
It is important to stay current when making homemade soap. Look for current and updated information. Find news and information regarding classes, workshops, demonstrations, activities, community events and more! Making homemade soap can be a challenge! When you keep up with news, events and articles, you can achieve soap making success and meet new friends too!
With the passage of time, the Internet has become all pervasive. People in the present day world are dependent on the web as much for accessing information as for their daily dose of entertainment. However, the most recent application of the Internet pertains to communication. Cheap long distance calls are now possible due to the emergence of Internet telephony and PC to phone solutions.
People across the globe are using their personal computers, an Internet connection and latest VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) services to make cheap long distance calls. This way, they do not have to pay exorbitantly for communicating with their near and dear ones, located in different parts of the globe. A number of Internet telephony companies are coming up which offer innovative PC phone solutions to cater to this growing demand.
There are quite a few merits of using PC-to-phone solutions. The overall quality of PC to Phone calls is satisfactory, especially when the same is delivered over a broadband connection. The savings one can accrue using VoIP PC to phone solutions are significant, especially if one has the habit of making frequent long distance international calls. Moreover, some other Internet and telecommunication services are made available that users can access in addition to the telephony solutions. E-mail, voice mail, faxing and video conferencing are some of these specialised services – which are made available to the subscribers at industry leading costs. In addition, the security issues are well taken care of by the service providers and users generally do not have any reason to worry.
However, the degree of congestion on the Internet when a person dials could have an adverse impact on the call quality. The installation of the right equipment would take care of this problem. A computer equipped with a fast processor would suit the bill perfectly. A sound card that allows both the parties to communicate at the same time and a headset with a built-in microphone would also go a long way in improving call quality. The headset would reduce the echoes caused by feedback from speakers.
Last but not the least, PC-to-phone solutions from a reputed VoIP Solution provider is often the best bet. One can then make cheap international calls at unbeatable prices; and the net phoning experience is guaranteed to be more than satisfactory.
Cider for me is the best alcoholic beverage, from when I was sipping a shared bottle of white lightning in the local park (we've all done it) to enjoying a cold one at the pub during the summer months it always had the same refreshing, relaxing and rejuvenating effect. My appreciation of this beverage has lasted year after year, so this article will hope to enlighten you just a bit more on what is cider, how cider is produced, and what is the best cider. I hope it's useful.
Cider is a renowned drink through the United Kingdom and Ireland; it comes in a range of forms from the traditional dry cider to the sweet cider, which allows it to be enjoyed by a whole range of individuals.
Most apples grown are suitable for cider making, though in a region like Kent cider-makers prefer to use a mixture of eating and cider apples or just cider apples if you are in the West Country.
On collection of these apples they are immediately grounded down in to what is known as a pomace or pommage. This process back in the day would of been undertaken at cider mills by hand or using either water or horse power. These days most cider presses are electrical, with the whole process looking to ensure the pomace is only exposed to air for a limited amount of time.
After this the all important fermentation process takes place, this is done at a temperature of 4-16 degrees C, which is low for most fermentations but is beneficial to cider at this temperature. Before the fermentation process consumes all the sugar, the cider is moved to a new vat, leaving dead yeast cells and any other undesirable materials at the bottom of the old vat.
Finally the last stage of fermentation creates a small amount of carbonation, which can be enhanced by adding some extra sugar. After a three month fermentation period the cider is ready to drink, but it is commonplace to leave it in vats for up to two years.
They are then removed from the vats and bottled. In some larger-scale cider production they have ciders produced from different varieties of apple, which in this case the cider may be blended to accord with market taste. When the cider is bottled usually some extra sugar is added for sparkle. Cider bottles are normally used but some home brewers use beer bottles, which work well and are inexpensive.
The West- Country is known as a leading cider producing region and one of the best (in my opinion). The majority of ciders in this part of the United Kingdom are known as Scrumpy which is a local term for small or withheld apple. They are over 25 Cider produces in Somerset and then following is Cornwall who is another big Cider county for the West Country.
In Cornwall there is a range of traditional ciders such as the previous mention Scrumpy Cider which is a strong cyder that can be bought medium dry and medium sweet at 7.4% alcohol volume.
Recently a new Cider has started becoming popular across the UK. The beverage that I speak of is the Cornish Rattler. This cider was originally only available in draft format, but after requests from numerous customers they have now bottled it. Made to be different in taste and appearance, this cloudy Cornish cyder is 6% ABV and sparkling. It was voted Best Bottled Cider at ciderfestivals.co.uk 2008. If I was to recommend you try any Cider it would be the Cornish Rattler, I feel its taste retains the original Cider taste but then adds certain delicate sweetness which is not sickly and compliments the original cider taste well.
So with Rattler now available in your local retailers I would recommend you go and check it out, if you like cider you will not be disappointed.
Stringing: beads of all sorts of types and colours are strung onto a beading thread using pleasing designs and colours.
Beadweaving: this is sometimes known as seedbeading. This includes a wide variety of weaves, including herringbone weave, brick stitch, peyote, netting, pondo stitch, right angle weave and square stitch. With the exception of two-needle right angle weave, these all require a needle and thread, and you weave in a similar way to sewing. Two needle right angle weave is usually not done with needles at all, a stiff thread is used, and the beads can be strung onto it without the use of a needle. There are also a huge range of spirals that can be made in all of the above weaves, as well as a few particular to spirals only. These include: Spiral rope, double spiral rope, triple spiral rope, flat spiral, Russian spiral, Dutch spiral, herringbone spiral, embellished right angle weave, Cellini spiral, Aussie spiral, netted spiral and African Helix.
Loom Beading: seed beads are woven into fabric using a loom. Some very intricate designs can be made.
Wire work and wire wrapping: This is where wire is used to created pleasing shapes and designs using wire.
Victorian Beading, and French Beading: these methods ore often used to make beaded flowers. Wire is used, as well as seed beads. Victorian beading, also know as Continental Beading, is worked horizontally with both ends of the wire going through the row of beads. French beading is worked vertically with rows of beads worked around a central row of beads.
Chainmail: also known as chain maille. This is created by joining jump rings into intricate patterns.
WHAT IS A BEAD?
Basically a bead is a small decorative object that has at least one hole in it for threading. Beads have been used for jewellery for hundreds of thousands of years.
Beads can be made from all sorts of things, including: natural materials- such as bone, coral, seashells and nuts. They can also be made of synthetic materials such as: ceramics, glass, crystal and plastic.
Seed Beads: seed beads are the very tiny beads used in jewellery making and beadweaving. These are usually measured in either mm or aught sizes, eg. 11/0, which means number of beads per inch.
There are three main types of seed beads available:
Japanese: these have a cylindrical shape and are very uniform in size. They have a lrge hole.
Czech: these have more of a rounded shape with smooth edges. They’re sometimes described as being donut shaped.
Chinese: these are the cheapest type of seed beads, but can be very uneven in shape and size. They are usually more Czech-shaped.
Bugle beads: these are long cylindrical beads, made in a range of lengths.
Shaped beads: these are made in any sorts of shapes.
Faceted beads: these have been cut and polished to give lots of reflection and shine.
TOOLS AND MATERIALS REQUIRED
The tools needed for jewellery making vary with what is being made and the technique used.
Some basic tools and materials are:
Thread: some available types are: tigertail, aculon, monofilament thread and Nymo.
Crimp beads: these are small soft metal beads with a large hole that are used to squash the thread together to hold the finding in place.
Findings: these are all the components used to make things into jewellery, includes clasps, earring hooks and keyrings.
Pliers: these are need for many things, including closing crimp beads. Two are usually needed to close jump rings.
Specific tools and materials:
Stringing: generally you don’t need much at all. Just your beads and thread, You’ll also need a couple of crimp beads and a couple of jump rings. You’ll need pliers to close the crimp beads and jump rings. You’ll also need clasps or other findings, depending on what you’re making,
Beadweaving: For this you’ll need fine thread, beading needle, seed beads. You’ll also need the crimp beads and other findings the same as with stringing, depending on what you’re making.
Loom Beading: loom, thread and seed beads, and findings as required.
Wire work and wire wrapping: The wire can be craft wire, artistic wire, copper wire, or sterling silver wire. They are available in different gauges that measure the thicknesses. You will need pointy nosed pliers, and round nosed pliers to create spirals and loops. Wire cutters are required to cut the wire.
Victorian Beading, and French Beading: Seed beads and wire are required for these. Pointy nosed pliers will be needed. If it’s going to be a flower, you’ll need a stiffer wire for the stem and some floral tape to wrap it.
Chainmail: This just requires lots of jumpring available in different sizes and gauges, as well as 2 pairs of pliers to close the rings. You’ll also need the findings as required.
A VERY SIMPLE BEADWEAVING PROJECT FOR A BEGINNER.
NETTED STAR TUTORIAL
Materials: 4mm crystals, or other beads
Size 10/0 seed beads
Stopper bead, any color, will be removed later.
Fine fishing line, approximately 80cm
Beading needle, or other fine needle
Thread the fishing line onto the needle
Tie on a stopper bead. A stopper bead is a bead the same size or smaller than the smallest bead you are using. String through it twice to hold it in place.
Add 6 seed beads, 1 crystal and 1 seed bead.
Go back through the crystal, and pull tight.
String on another 6 seed beads, a crystal, and this time 4 seed beads.
Go back through the first seed bead you strung on, through the same way you came from originally. Then back through the crystal.
Continue in this manner, adding 6 seed beads between each section, crystals next to each end, and ends alternating between a single seed bead, and a 4 seed bead circle.
This should form a zigzag pattern with the 4 bead circles on one end, and the single beads on the other, as in the diagram.
Stop when you have 6 of each types of ends. 12 points all together.
The thread should now be coming out of the crystal, in readiness for the 6 seed bead centre. Now instead of starting a new 6 bead section, just string back through the first section, all the way through the first 6 seed beads, the crystal, and the end seed bead.
You should now have a rough circle. String through the next single seed bead, at the next point, then the next. Continue through them all. Then go through them all again.
Tie off, and thread through a few beads. Remove stopper bead, tie, and thread through a few beads.
There are a number of similarities in making soap and candles. Both require pouring the raw materials into molds to give them shape. Candles and soap need scents and color as well. Many stores sell both candle and soap making supply kits. Candle and soap-making supply stores are found nationwide and on the Internet. It is easy to find materials for very reasonable prices.
Making soap is similar to making candles. The early steps are alike, in that they both involve melting the materials in order to pour them into a mold to give them shape. While wax or gel is used to make candles, a glycerin compound is usually used for soap. This is normally a mixture of natural vegetable oils, pure water, glycerin, and a soothing moisturizer. Once the raw materials are melted, they are poured into a mold that gives them shape. There are an endless variety of molds available for both soap and candles. Candles and soaps can be molded into a number of designs and shapes. Another difference, besides the materials used, is that soap molds are usually smaller than candle molds.
Also, candles often stay in containers or votives, while soap is always taken out of its mold.
Candles and soaps both benefit from the addition of colors and aromas. There are a number of dyes to give color to soap and candles. It is important to use the correct kind of dye for the soap. Candle dyes could be toxic and create skin rashes or discoloration if used in soap. There are scents that can make candles and soaps more pleasing, tiny bottles of concentrated liquid that give soap or candles an aroma.
Candle and soap-making supply stores have all of the ingredients needed to make either product. It is important to use the materials for their intended uses rather than mixing and matching. The processes of making soap and candles are similar, but they are not identical.